Publication News

July 2020

As the COVID-19 pandemic grips the world we must take great care in monitoring and limiting the transmission such viruses through all possible routes. Whilst the primary transmission routes are through the respiratory system and from touching contaminated surfaces, it must be remembered that this virus affects the whole body, including the digestive system. As such, can potentially spread to the environment through the wastewater system. When combining this fact with its proven ability to be transmitted to some animals this raises the alarming possibility, as yet unconfirmed, that it could be transmitted to wild animals through insufficiently treated wastewater. If this occurs and transmission is possible back to people, this could potentially act as an environmental reservoir of the virus.

Researchers from NYUAD Water Research Center published a paper detailing two ways in which advanced wastewater treatment systems can be utilised as tools for monitoring and stopping the spread of such viruses. The first is through the testing of sewage reaching the treatment plants. Study of biomarkers for the SARS-CoV2 virus, which causes COVID-19, can provide real-time monitoring of the spread of the disease geographically, as system termed Wastewater Based Epidemiology. As the virus is released from the body before symptoms occur, this technique can track the infection in a local population before any cases have been recorded, allowing a faster response to be made.

The second way in which wastewater treatment can help is through the removal of viral particles, preventing their spread to the environment. Different wastewater treatment processes, both conventional and advanced, are described, alongside a discussion of their viral removal efficiencies. Whilst no technique can completely remove all contamination, very high removal rates can be achieved using advanced and multi-step systems.

June 2020

The Osmosis Engineering book (ISBN: 978-0-12-821016-1) by Professor Nidal Hilal et al provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding osmosis based research and industrial/engineering applications. It covers the underpinning theories, technology development and commercial applications, with chapters written by the leading researchers in the relevant fields.

Engineered osmosis (EO) refers to a family of membrane based separation processes, with wide industrial applications, but primarily associated with the production of drinking water from seawater and brackish water, and with the treatment of contaminated and waste water.

The book can be purchased here

Osmosis is the diffusion driven flow of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane, leading to separation of solutes from solvent. EO collectively are processes based on driving solutions through a selective membrane either with or against the osmotic gradient. EO processes is a rapidly moving research which includes both isothermal (Forward Osmosis, FO; Pressure Retarded Osmosis, PRO; Reverse Osmosis, RO; Osmotic Distillation, OD) and non-isothermal (Osmotic Membrane Distillation, OMD; Thermo-osmosis, TO) membrane separation processes used for water and energy production.


Please visit this site for a complete list of handbooks published.

"Osmosis Engineering" by Elsevier {ISBN-13: 9780128210161). April 2021

Nanofiber membranes for medical, environmental and energy applications” by CRC Press. (ISBN-13: 9780815387039). August 2019.

Membrane-based salinity gradient processes for water treatment and power generation” by Elsevier (ISBN-13: 9780444639615). July 2018

Membrane Characterization” by Elsevier (ISBN-13: 9780444627765). April 2017

Membrane Fabrication” by CRC Press (ISBN-13: 9781482210453). March 2015

Boron Separation Processes” by Elsevier (ISBN-13: 9780444634542). February 2015

Membrane Modification: Technology and Applications” by CRC Press (ISBN-13: 9781439866351). 2012

Atomic Force Microscopy and Process Engineering” by Elsevier (ISBN-13: 978-1856175173). 2009.    

  • Selected Publications

    Please visit these sites for a complete list of publications and patents.

    Ruwaida Abdul Wahid, Ang Wei Lun, Abdul Wahab Muhammad, Daniel James Johnson, Nidal Hilal (2021) Evaluation of Fertilizer-drawn Forward Osmosis for the Treat-ment of Anaerobic Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Commercial Fertilizer as Draw Solution. Membranes. doi:

    Shaheen F. Anis, Boor S. Lalia, Alain Lesimple, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2021) Electrically conductive membranes for contemporaneous dye rejection and degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal. doi:

    Shaheen Fatima Anis, Boor Singh Lalia, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2021) Hierarchical underwater oleophobic electro-ceramic/Carbon nanostructure membranes for highly efficient oil-in-water separation. Separation and Purification Technology. doi: h​t​t​p​s​:​/​/​d​o​i​.​o​r​g​/​1​0​.​1​0​1​6​/​j​.​s​e​p​p​u​r​.​2​0​2​1​.​1​1​9​2​4​1​

    Muhammad Qasim, Ibrar Ul Samad, Naif A. Darwish, Nidal Hilal (2021) Comprehensive review of membrane design and synthesis for membrane distillation. Desalination. doi:

    Nor Naimah Rosyadah Ahmad, Wei Lun Ang, Choe Peng Leo, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Nidal Hilal (2021) Current advances in membrane technologies for saline wastewater treatment: A comprehensive review. Desalination. doi: 

    Farah Ejaz Ahmed, Abdullah Khalil, Nidal Hilal (2021) Emerging desalination technologies: current status, challenges and future trends. Desalination. doi:

    Samaneh Bandehali, Fahime Parvizian, Huimin Ruan, Abdolreza Moghadassi, Jiangnan Shen, Alberto Figoli, Adeyemi S. Adeleye, Nidal Hilal, Takeshi Matsuura, Enrico Drioli, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini (2021) A planned review on designing of high-performance nanocomposite nanofiltration membranes for pollutants removal from water. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. doi:10.1016/j.jiec.2021.06.022

    Abdullah Khalil, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2021) 3D printed zeolite-Y for removing heavy metals from water. Journal of Water Process Engineering, doi:

    Abdullah Khalil, Farah Ahmed, Nidal Hilal (2021) The emerging role of 3D printing in water desalination. Journal of Science of The Total Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148238

    Abdullah Almojjly, Abdullah Alkhudhiri and Nidal Hilal (2021) Oil-Water Separation by Using Ceramic Microfiltration Membrane. Chapter in a book entitled “An In-Depth Guide to Oil-in-Water Emulsions”. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

    Wei Jie Lee, Pei Sean Goh, Woei Jye Lau, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Nidal Hilal (2021) Green Approaches for Sustainable Development of Liquid Separation Membrane. MEMBRANES, doi: 10.3390/membranes11040235

    P.S. Goh, H.S. Kang, A.F. Ismail, N. Hilal (2021) The Hybridization of Thermally-Driven Desalination Processes: The State-of-the-art and Opportunities. Desalination, doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2021.115002

    Shaheen Fatima Anis, Boor Singh Laila, Mostafa Khair, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2021) Electro-ceramic self-cleaning membranes for biofouling control and prevention inwater treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, doi: 10.​1016/​j.​cej.​2020.​128395

    Khalid Alsaud, Mohammed D. Alsubei, Saad A. Aljlil, Nawaf Bin Darwish, Nidal Hilal (2021) Membrane distillation process application using a novel ceramic membrane for Brackish water desalination. Desalination, doi: 10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2020.​114906

    Ralph Rolly Gonzales, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab, Samer Adham, Dong Suk Han,  Sherub Phuntsho, Wafa Suwaileh, Nidal Hilal, Ho Kyong Shon (2021) Salinity gradient energy generation by pressure retarded osmosis: A review. Desalination, doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2020.114841

    Daniel Johnson, Nidal Hilal (2021) Can Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials Revolutionize Desalination Processes? Desalination, doi: 10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2020.​114852

    Shaheen F. Anis, Boor S. Lalia, Alain Lesimple, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2021) Superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic nano zeolite membranes for efficient oil-in-water nanoemulsion separation. Journal of Water Process Engineering, doi: 1016/​j.​jwpe.​2020.​101802

    Nidal Hilal, Ahmed Fauzi Ismail, Mohamed Khayet and Daniel Johnson (2021) Osmosis Engineering by Elsevier (ISBN: 978-0-12-821016-1)

    Daniel Johnson, Raed Hashaikeh and Nidal Hilal (2021) Basic Principles of Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure.  Chapter 1 in Osmosis Engineering by Hilal et al. Elsevier (ISBN: 978-0-12-821016-1). Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-821016-1.00011-5

    Wafa Suwaileh, Daniel Johnson, Nidal Hilal (2021) Principles of Forward Osmosis. Chapter 5 in Osmosis Engineering by Hilal et al. Elsevier (ISBN: 978-0-12-821016-1). Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-821016-1.00008-5

    Wafa Suwaileh, Daniel Johnson, Sarper Sarp, Nidal Hilal (2021) Principle and theoretical background of pressure retarded osmosis process. Chapter 7 in Osmosis Engineering by Hilal et al. Elsevier (ISBN: 978-0-12-821016-1). Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-821016-1.00004-8

    Wafa Suwaileh, Daniel Johnson, Nidal Hilal (2021) Application of PRO process for seawater and wastewater treatment: Assessment of membrane performance.  Chapter 8 in Osmosis Engineering by Hilal et al. Elsevier (ISBN: 978-0-12-821016-1). DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-821016-1.00012-7

    Nur Diyana Suzaimi, Pei Sean Goh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Stanley Chinedu Mamah, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek, Jun Wei Lim, Nidal Hilal (2020) Strategies in Forward Osmosis Membrane Substrate Fabrication and Modification: A Review. Membranes, 2020, 10, 332; doi:10.3390/membranes10110332

    Mohammed Wali Hakami, Abdullah Alkhudhiri, Sirhan Al-Batty, Myrto-Panagiota Zacharof, Jon Maddy, Nidal Hilal (2020) Ceramic Microfiltration Membranes in Wastewater Treatment: Filtration Behavior, Fouling and Prevention. Membranes 2020, 10, 248. doi:10.3390/membranes10090248

    Farah Ahmed, Boor Laila, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2020) Alternative heating techniques in membrane distillation: A review. Desalination. doi: j.desal.2020.114713

    Farah Ahmed, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2020) Hybrid technologies: the future of energy-efficient desalination – a review. Desalination. doi:10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2020.​114659

    Alain Lesimple, Farah Ahmed, Nidal Hilal (2020) Remineralization of desalinated water: methods and environmental impact. Desalination. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2020.​114692

    Nawaf Bin Darwish, Abdullah Alkhudhiri, Abdulrahman AlAlawi, Hamad AlRomaih, Nidal Hilal (2020) Experimental investigation of forward osmosis process for boron removal from water.  Journal of Water Process Engineering. doi:10.​1016/​j.​jwpe.​2020.​101570

    Alain Lesimple, Saad Y. Jasim, Daniel J. Johnson, Nidal Hilal (2020) The role of wastewater treatment plans as tools for SARS-CoV-2 early detection and removal. Journal of Water Process Engineering. doi:10.​1016/​j.​jwpe.​2020.​101544.

    Haya Nassrullah, Shaheen Fatima Anis, Raed Hashaikeh, Nidal Hilal (2020) Energy for desalination: A state-of-the-art review. Desalination. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2020.​114569

    P. S. Goh, T.W. Wong, J. W. Lim, A. F. Ismail, N. Hilal (2020) Innovative and sustainable membrane technology for wastewater treatment and desalination application Innovation Strategies in Environmental Science, 291-319. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-817382-4.00009-5

    Zahra Alihemati, Seyed Abdollatif Hashemifard, Takeshi Matsuura, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Nidal Hilal (2020) Current status and challenges of fabricating thin film composite forward osmosis membrane: A comprehensive roadmap. Desalination. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2020.114557

    Suwaileh, W., Johnson, D. j., Hilal, N. 2020, Membrane Desalination and Water Re-use for Agriculture: State of the Art and Future Outlook. Desalination 491, 114559. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2020.114559

    Ahmed, F., Laila, B., Hashaikeh, R., Hilal, N., (2020) Enhanced performance of direct contact membrane distillation via selected electrothermal heating of membrane surface Journal of Membrane Science. Doi: 10.​1016/​j.​memsci.​2020.​118224

    Z Liu, K Wang, J Saththasivam, D El-masri, N Hilal (2020) Multi-layered Membrane for Oil/Water Separation. US Patent App. 16/499,856

    Wafa Suwaileh,  Nidal Hilal, Nirenkumar Pathak, Hokyong Shon, Nidal Hilal. (2020). Forward osmosis membranes and processes: A comprehensive review of research trends and future outlook 485, 114455. doi: 10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2020.​114455.

    Aani, S., Mustafa, T., Hilal, N. 2020 Ultrafiltration membranes for wastewater and water process engineering: A comprehensive statistical review over the past decade Journal of Water Process Engineering 35 101241. doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2020.101241

    Safie, N., Yaser, A., Hilal, N. 2020 Ammonium ion removal using activated zeolite and chitosan Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. doi: 10.1002/apj.2448

    Shaheen Fatima Anis; Boor Singh Lalia; Raed Hashaikeh; Nidal Hilal, 2020, Breaking through the selectivity-permeability tradeOFF using nano zeolite-Y for micellar enhanced ultrafiltration dye rejection application. Separation and Purification Technology. doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2020.116824

    Lee, W., Ng, Z., Hubadillah, S., Goh, P., Lau, W., Othman, M., Ismail, A., Hilal, N. 2020 Fouling Mitigation in Forward Osmosis and Membrane Distillation for Desalination Desalination 480 114338. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2020.114338

    Hilal, N., Sarp, S. 2020 Thermodynamic Optimization of Multistage Pressure Retarded Osmosis (MPRO) with Variable Feed Pressures for Hypersaline Solutions Desalination 477 114245. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2019.114245

    Hilal, N., Johnson, D.  Ang, W., Mohammad, A , 2020 Unlocking the Application Potential of Forward Osmosis through Integrated/Hybrid Process Science of the Total Environment 706 136047. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136047

    Anis, S. F., Mostafa, A. O., Hilal, N., Hashaikeh, R., 2020 Nanocrystalline NiWO4-WO3-WO2.9 Composite strings: Fabrication, Characterization and their Electrocatalytic Performance for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. doi: 10.1007/s11661-019-05596-0

    Zafisah, N., Ang, W., Mohammad, A., Hilal, N., Johnson, D. (2020)  “Interaction between ballasting agent and flocs in ballasted flocculation for the removal of suspended solids”. Journal of Water Process Engineering  33 101028. doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2019.101028

    Nawaf BinDarwish, Abdullah Alkhudhiri, Hamad AlRomaih, Abdulrahman Alalawi, Mark C.Leaper,  Nidal Hilal, (2020) “Effect of lithium chloride additive on forward osmosis membranes performance”. Journal of Water Process Engineering 33, 101049. doi: j.jwpe.2019.101049

    Johnson, Daniel ., Wei Lun, Ang ., Mohammad, Abdul Wahab . & Hilal, Nidal. (2020). Dewatering of POME digestate using lignosulfonate driven forward osmosis. Separation and purification technology 235 (116151). doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2019.116151

    Obaid, Mohammed., Ali Abdelkareem, Mohammad., Kook, Seungho., Kim, Hak-Yong., Hilal, Nidal., Ghaffour, Noreddine. & Kim, In S. (2020). Breakthroughs in the fabrication of electrospun-nanofiber-supported thin film composite/nanocomposite membranes for the forward osmosis process: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 50 (17). doi:10.1080/10643389.2019.1672510

    Hakami, Mohammed Wali., Alkhudhiri, Abdullah., Zacharof, Myrto-Panagiota. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Towards a Sustainable Water Supply: Humic Acid Removal Employing Coagulation and Tangential Cross Flow Microfiltration. Water 11(10), 2093. doi:10.3390/w11102093

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima ., Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). FLux and salt rejection enhancement of polyvinyl(alcohol) reverse osmosis membranes using nano-zeolite. Desalination469. doi:10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2019.​114104

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima., Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Microfiltration membrane processes: a review of research trends over the past decade. Journal of Water Process Engineering 32(100941). doi:10.1016/J.jwpe.2019.100941

    Lo, Sui Bun ., Jones, Jason ., Hassan, Oubay . & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Development of an axisymmetric parallel solution algorithm for membrane separation process. Desalination470(114127). doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.114127.

    Suwaileh, Wafa ., Johnson, Daniel J.., Jones, Daniel. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). An integrated fertilizer driven forward osmosis- renewables powered membrane distillation system for brackish water desalination: a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Desalination 470(114126). doi:10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2019.​114126.

    Ahmed, Farah., Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Fouling control in reverse osmosis membranes through modification with conductive carbon nanostructures. Desalination 470 (114118) Doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.114118

    Ahmed, Farah Ejaz., Hashaikeh, Raed., Diabat, Ali. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Mathematical and optimization modelling in desalination: State-of-the-art and future direction. Desalination 469, 114092. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.114092    

    Al Aani, Saif., Bonny, Talal., Hasan, Shadi W.. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Can machine language and artificial intelligence revolutionize process automation for water treatment and desalination?. Desalination 458, 84-96.doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.02.005    

    Alkhudhiri, Abdullah., Bin Darwish, Nawaf. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Analytical and Forecasting Study for Wastewater Treatment and Water Resources in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Water Process Engineering 32 (100915). doi:10.1016/j.jwpe.2019.100915

    Almojjly, Abdullah., Johnson, Daniel. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Investigations of the effect of pore size of ceramic membranes on the pilot-scale removal of oil from oil-water emulsion. Journal of Water Process Engineering 31, 100868. doi:10.1016/j.jwpe.2019.100868    

    Almojjly, Abdullah., Johnson, Daniel J., Mandale, Stephen. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Optimisation of the removal of oil in water emulsion by using ceramic microfiltration membrane and hybrid coagulation/sand filter-MF. Journal of Water Process Engineering 27, 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.jwpe.2018.11.007 

    Al-Othman, Amani ., Darwish, Noora N. ., Qasim, Muhammad ., Tawalbeh, Mohammad ., Darwish, Naif A. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Nuclear Desalination: A State-of-the-Art Review. Desalination 457, 39-61. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.002    

    Ang, Wei Lun., Wahab Mohammad, Abdul., Johnson, Daniel. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Forward osmosis research trends in desalination and wastewater treatment: A review of research trends over the past decade. Journal of Water Process Engineering 31, 100886. doi:10.1016/j.jwpe.2019.100886    

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima, Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). FLux and salt rejection enhancement of polyvinyl(alcohol) reverse osmosis membranes using nano-zeolite. Desalination 469 (114104) Doi:10.​1016/​j.​desal.​2019.​114104

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima., Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Functional materials in desalination: A review. Desalination 468, 114077. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.114077

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima., Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Reverse osmosis pretreatment technologies and future trends: A comprehensive review. Desalination 452, 159-195. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2018.11.006    

    Al-Othman, Amani., Darwish, Noora N., Qasim, Muhammad., Tawalbeh, Mohammad ., Darwish, Naif A. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Nuclear Desalination: A State-of-the-Art Review. Desalination 457, 39-61. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.002    

    Ahmed, Farah Ejaz., Hashaikeh, Raed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Solar powered desalination – Technology, energy and future outlook. Desalination 453, 54-76.  doi:10.1016/j.desal.2018.12.002    

    Goh, P.S. ., Ismail, A.F. . & Hilal, Nidal. (2019) Desalination Technology and Advancement. In Encyclopedia of Water Resources Management and Policy, Oxford Research Encyclopedias & Oxford Handbooks Online. USA: Oxford University Press.    

    Goh, Pei Sean. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019) Innovative and sustainable membrane technologies. In Innovation strategies in environmental science. Amsterdam: Elsevier.    

    Goh, P.S.., Zulhairun, A.K.., Ismail, A.F.. & Hilal, N.. (2019). Contemporary anti-biofouling modifications of reverse osmosis desalination membrane: A review. Desalination 468, 114072. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.114072 

    Johnson, Daniel. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Polymer Membranes – Fractal Characteristics and Determination of Roughness Scaling Exponents. Journal of Membrane Science 570, 9-22. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2018.10.024    

    Kovalchuk, Nina M., Johnson, Daniel J., Sobolev, Vladimir , Hilal N. & Starov, Victor. (2019).Interactions between nanoparticles in nanosuspension. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 272

    Mortimer, Chris J.., James, Sean., Hilal, Nidal. & Wright, Chris J.. (2019) Electrospun Antimicrobial Membranes-Functionality and Morphology. In Nanofiber Membranes for Medical, Environmental, and Energy Applications. (pp. 17-37). NY: CRC Press.

    Qasim, Muhammad., Badrelzaman, Mohamed., Darwish, Noora N.., Darwish, Naif A.. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Reverse osmosis desalination: A state-of-the-art review. Desalination 459, 59-104. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.02.008    

    Suwaileh, Wafa., Johnson, Daniel., Khodabakhshi, Saeed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Development of forward osmosis membranes modified by cross-linked layer by layer assembly for brackish water desalination. Journal of Membrane Science 583, 267-277.doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2019.04.052    

    Suwaileh, Wafa., Johnson, Daniel., Khodabakhshi, Saeed. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Superior cross-linking assisted layer by layer modification of forward osmosis membranes for brackish water desalination. Desalination 463, 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.04.009    

    Suwaileh, W., Johnson, D.J., Hilal, Nidal. (2019). Brackish water desalination for agriculture: assessing the performance of inorganic fertilizer draw solution. Desalination. 456, 53-63. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2019.01.014    

    Widdowson, Jonathan P. ., Wright, Chris J.. & Hilal, Nidal. (2019) Electrospun Collagen Nanofiber Membranes for Regenerative Medicine. In Nanofiber Membranes for Medical, Environmental, and Energy Applications. (pp. 57-87). NY: CRC press.